“We Are All Monetarists Now”
| Peter Klein |
“We are all Keynesians now,” Milton Friedman famously remarked in 1965. He meant that all mainstream macroeconomists, regardless of political persuasion, accepted the basic aggregate income-expenditure framework (and assumption of homogeneous capital) that underlies the neo-Keynesian model. How this model came to displace its predecessors, and how it remains in force today, despite the New Classical revolution and New Keynesian counterrevolution, is one of the most interesting stories of twentieth-century intellectual history. Greg Mankiw’s warm fuzzy for Bob Lucas — really a poke at Paul Krugman — is instructive in this regard. As is this anecdote shared by Steve Medema:
I was attending the small Claremont-Bologna monetary conference about a decade ago, and the participants included Friedman, Modigliani, Tobin, and Samuelson. I was sitting in a shuttle van that would take us to dinner, talking with Milton and Rose Friedman. Modigliani approached the van, saw Friedman, shook his hand vigorously, and exclaimed, “Milton, I’m a monetarist now!”
Keynesian, New Keynesian, Monetarist, and New Classical macroeconomics are variations on a theme. The capital-based macroeconomics of the Austrian school represents an entirely different approach, one I hope to blog more about soon. (See also: “Revenge of the Aggregates.”)
Update: Even Dick Armey, writing in today’s WSJ, gets it:
Keynes’s thinking was a decisive departure from classical economics, because arbitrary “macro” constructs like aggregate demand had no basis in the microeconomic science of human action. As Hayek observed, “some of the most orthodox disciples of Keynes appear consistently to have thrown overboard all the traditional theory of price determination and of distribution, all that used to be the backbone of economic theory, and in consequence, in my opinion, to have ceased to understand any economics.”
As Keynes’s Cambridge colleague Gerald Shove supposedly remarked (according to Joan Robinson), “Maynard never spent the half hour necessary to learn price theory.” Sadly, the same seems true of many of Keynes’s modern disciples.